對挪威人而言，經常是這樣說的“Der var helt texas!”(這實在是太瘋狂瞭！)。這個詞是個俚語，指“瘋狂”或“狂熱”，用於指一種混亂的氛圍。
To most of the world,Texas is known as a big state in southern America.
But to Norwegians, it is also a word that frequently crops up in everyday conversation - often in the phrase "Der var helt texas!" [That was very completely/totally texas!].
但是，對挪威人而言，它也是日常交談時常說的一個詞，經常是這樣說的“Der var helt texas!”(這實在是太瘋狂瞭！)
The word is slang for "crazy" or "wild" and is used to refer to a chaotic atmosphere, Texas Monthly first reported.
It became part of the language when Norwegians started watching cowboy movies and reading Western literature, according to Daniel Gusfre Ims, the head of the advisory service at the Language Council of Norway.
"The genre was extremely popular inNorway, and a lot of it featuredTexas, so the word became a symbol of something lawless and without control," he says.
Its first usage dates back to 1957, when it appeared in a novel by Vegard Vigerust called The Boy who wanted to buy Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation. The author writes "he would make it even more texas in the village?".
1957年，挪威小說傢維吉爾斯特在《男孩》（The Boy ）一書中首次使用瞭這個詞，書中的男孩想要買下挪威廣播公司，他在書中寫道，“他會把整個村弄得更加“texas”嗎？”。
Nowadays, the word is widespread all overNorway. It's frequently used in the phrase "helt texas" [completely crazy], which has appeared in Norwegian newspapers 50 times this year, he says.
It's often used negatively, but not always. "It could be a party out of control, a class out of control, or traffic. It could also be used by someone who had sold many products," he says.
Gusfre Ims says this language phenomenon - metonymy, where a thing or concept is called not by its own name, but by another name which is associated with it - is pretty common in Norway, and language generally.
Norwegians also use the term "hawaiifootball" to describe an "out-of-control" match, he says. The word "klondike", a region inCanadaassociated with the gold rush, is used to describe economic expansion, and also has a hint of something going out of control.
He also points to terms such as "Armageddon" and "champagne".
"People don't mean the place in the Bible, or the area inFrance," he says.
Erin McKean, the founder of the online dictionary Wordnik, agrees that words are often adopted into language in this way.
"I'm not surprised Norwegians would use this kind of geography to convey a quality. This is how we make language - emphasing one aspect of the word, or using metaphors," she says.
McKean says there are plenty of examples of the English language using perceived characteristics of people from other places, which is a common occurrence with neighbouring countries.
"Dutch courage is associated with having to drink to be courageous. A Dutch treat [when people pay for their own share of an expense] isn't exactly a treat. We talk about taking French leave, or an Irish goodbye.
“荷蘭人的勇氣（Dutch courage）”與喝酒壯膽有關，而“荷蘭人請客（a Dutch treat）”真正指的不是一頓免費大餐，而是各付己帳。還有，我們會用French leave或an Irish goodbye表示不辭而別。
"The closest thing to we probably have to 'texas' inAmericais berserk from the Norse warriors, but that's apparently Icelandic, although disputed," she says.
McKean says people tend to take these expressions with a pinch of salt.
"I think Americans think the Norwegian texas thing is quite funny. Texans like to think of themselves as larger than life and extreme in some way - and it's a short hop from extreme to crazy," she says.
Anne Ekern, of the Norwegian consulate inHouston, agrees.
"The reactions we have had, have been on the positive side," she says.
But Gusfre Ims wants to reassure any Texans in doubt.
"What Norwegians think aboutTexashas nothing to do with the expression. We knowTexasis not a lawless society. It's just a fixed phrase," he says.
Indian giver 送東西給人日後又討回的人
Spanish castle 空中樓閣；不切實際
Spanish athlete 愛吹牛的人
Italian hand 幕後操縱；暗中幹預
Irish bull 自相矛盾，荒唐可笑的說法
Greek gift 害人的禮物
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